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Smart Grid

Substation Monitor & Control (IEC61850)

KIGG have for many years been working on both the integrations of various components of the Smart Grid and on certain specific components of the Smart Gird.

The components of a Smart Grid consist of:

Hardware

  • Sensors, Embedded processors, Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)
  • Integration with other hardware, legacy systems and power systems components.

Software

  • SCADA, Energy management, information management

Communications

  • Slow / legacy systems (existing SCADA ) Vs High-speed, high-bandwidth (Based around TCP/IP and Ethernet to standards such as IEC61850 for substation automation)

Transmission Applications

  • Grid integration of renewables,
  • Advanced metering (AMR / AMI), operations
    – Emergency control; Load shedding, Intelligent system separation

Distribution Applications

  • AMI - Application of smart meters
  • Real-time pricing
  • Demand side management
  • Distribution automation
  • Optimising efficiency, reliability, carbon footprint

On Customer Side of Meter

  • Load Management (coordinated w/utility)
  • Integration of energy resources as micro-grid
    – Interconnection with Utility
    – Interruptible Loads (water heater, heat, AC)
    – Electric or hybrid-electric vehicle
    – Generation: solar, wind, micro-hydro
    – Energy storage: battery
    – Optimal control according to goal of customer

Requirements & Concerns

– Communications bandwidth for “fast” wide area applications
– Interoperability
– Cyber security
– Information security, privacy
– Complexity, reliability of technology & applications.

Of particular interest to KIGG is the Micro Grid and the integration of IEC 61850.

Micro-Grid

  • Small, independent power system
  • Increased reliability with distributed generation
  • Increase efficiency with reduced transmission length and CHP
  • Easier integration of alternative energy sources
  • Problems (e.g. Control / Stability / Load sharing / Energy Management)Components of a Micro-grid
  • Overview– Multiple Distributed Generation Points (solar, wind, hydro etc)
    – Control Systems / Energy Management
    – Utility Interconnection Switch
    – Point of Common Coupling (PCC)
    – Energy Storage Technical Hurdles: Control and Communications
  • Grid connection
    – Sync and re-connect
    – Power Export / Feed - in
  • Centralized Control System
    – Global optimization
    – Single point of failure
  • Distributed control
    – Modularity/flexibility
    – Local optimization
  • Smart Metering
  • Standards for Micro-grid

Smart Grid v1.2.pdf